CUMULATIVE NUMBER OF SCHOLARLY PUBLICATIONS INVOLVING MAGIC
0 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 horizonofreason . com explain abstract concepts of management . Finding this paper was a welcome distraction from my primary research . I subsequently started a fascinating exploration into the world of science and magic by developing a bibliography .
The bibliography of the science of magic currently includes more than four hundred entries . The scientific research into magic is often undertaken out of an interest in magic itself , but also uses magic performances as a research method to learn about the world in general . For magicians , this research is valuable and exciting . These scientific findings enriches their art and perhaps helps them fine-tune their techniques to improve the deceptiveness and entertainment value of their tricks . For scientists , magic is an exciting field of study and experimental modality that helps us to understand the world .
For the full academic magic bibliography , see : https :// horizonofreason . com / magic / magic-bibliography /.
The formal sciences form the foundations of all the other sciences . Subjects such as logic and mathematics provide the building blocks of science . Magicians often rely on mathematics as a method to entertain their audiences . Even the greats of magic , such as David Copperfield , use self-working mathematical tricks .
Mathematical magic tricks broadly fall into three categories . Most such magic entails self-working routines that use number theory . sociology or performance studies to present a world where the impossible becomes seemingly possible . The relationship between science and magic is thus bi-directional . Magicians use science to create the illusion of supernatural magic , while scientists study magicians and their craft to learn more about the world around us .
The diagram above visualises this bidirectional relationship . The outer circle shows the types of sciences involved with magic : formal , physical , social , and applied sciences . The formal sciences , such as mathematics , form the foundations of science . The physical sciences , such as physics and chemistry , describe the material world . The social sciences study the behaviour of human beings , either as individuals or in groups . The social sciences also study the artefacts of human cultures , one of which is theatrical magic . The second ring lists the individual sciences where scholars and professionals have published about theatrical magic . Each of these sciences has a different relationship with theatrical magic . Magicians use science as layers of deception ( the methods ring ), while scholars develop scientific perspectives of magic ( the research ring ). Some sciences , such as psychology and performance studies , are both a method of magic and a field of study .
The Bibliography of Magic and Science
The circle diagram provides a taxonomy of the magic of science and the science of magic that emerged from extensive bibliographical research into magic . I discovered the first scientific paper on magic when writing my dissertation about business studies . This paper showed how magic tricks can help to
These are the well-known tricks that use patterns and properties of numbers to create seemingly impossible outcomes . Less common are magic tricks that use geometry , with the missing square puzzle as the most popular implementation . The third category of mathematical magic tricks uses topology . Classics , such as the linking rings , have a topological theme . Linking two rings without cutting them is only possible in a world with more than three spatial dimensions . Some magic tricks , such as the legendary Afghan Bands or rubber band magic , use topology as a method .
The science of nature seeks to develop models to explain and predict the physical and biological world . Magicians liberally use the principles of physics and chemistry to create their illusions . Magical engineering uses optics , hydraulics and electronics and anything else that can help create a magical effect . The scientific literature in this genre does not research magic itself but mainly describes how teachers can use magic tricks to help students understand the principles of nature .
The social sciences are a broad group of scientific interests that study all aspects of human individuals and collectives . This area of research is so wide that the space available in this article can barely skim the surface .
Psychology is the mother of all sciences of magic . The scientific study of magic is